By J. Arthur
African girls Immigrants within the usa depicts how immigrant ladies use overseas migration as a method to problem latest patriarchal hegemonies operative either within the usa and Africa. It additionally weaves jointly the multidimensional strands of ways African immigrant ladies form and are formed via the method of overseas migration.
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Extra info for African Women Immigrants in the United States: Crossing Transnational Borders
A new era was about to be ushered in to bring about economic and political emancipation and give meaning to the long-held notion that Africans are capable of selfgovernance and self-determination. Educational initiatives and public campaigns were initiated at all levels of society to encourage parents to take advantage of the free systems of public education. Countries like Ghana, Tanzania, Zambia, and Egypt expanded their primary and secondary school systems, often at the expense of their tertiary educational systems.
Drought and mismanagement due to the failure to pay farmers for their produce worsened the fiscal situation of many countries. Coupled with these problems were the growing problems of political and economic corruption, foreign indebtedness, civil unrest, and the ascendancy of militarism and ethnic-tribal factionalisms. While gender stereotypes and disparate systems of stratification continue to favor and influence the eminence of men in international migration across Africa, women are gradually breaking the cultural strictures associated with gender discrimination by initiating and implementing their own migration independent of their male counterparts.
The money they received was supplemented with money that they borrowed from extended family relations. ” This is money used to pay bribes to border guards as they traverse Africa; to pay fishermen to ferry them across the Mediterranean; to pay desert villagers for shelter and, at times, food; or to pay the caravan operators who ply the Sahara, connecting it to North Africa and the Mediterranean. Families often pool their resources to assist their kin in undertaking the trip to America and the West.
African Women Immigrants in the United States: Crossing Transnational Borders by J. Arthur