By Adriel R. Bonilla
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Extra info for Antibiotic resistance : causes and risk factors, mechanisms and alternatives
Two strains of Leuconostoc spp. that were highly resistant to vancomycin were isolated from immunocompromised patients with bacteremia. In another case, Coovadia et al. (1987) reported the isolation of a Leuconostoc strain from a 16-year-old girl with purulent meningitis. , 2008). The EU has set stringent guidelines for microorganisms that are used as feed additives. These microorganisms are required to be evaluated on a 90-day toxicity study that includes the detection of naturally occurring antibiotic resistance markers.
2005). It is well-known that bacterial translocation results in various negative clinical infections to the host. However, antibiotic-resistant probiotic translocation is even more detrimental to the health of the patient than the translocation of endogenous bacteria. The transfer of live antibiotic-resistant probiotics from the gastrointestinal tract to other organ via the circulation may potentially cause systemic infections such as bacteremia, septicemia and multiple organ failure (Liong, 2008).
1999), involves an initially susceptible population of bacteria 22 Min-Tze Liong, Siok-Koon Yeo, Chiu-Yin Kuan et al. becoming resistant to an antibiotic and proliferating under the selective pressure of that agent (Tenover, 2006). The presence of accessory genetic elements such as transposons and plasmids, in addition to chromosomes in the bacteria genome, greatly increases the potential for the spread of the resistance gene. This is especially true if the gene is carried by a mobile genetic element or is itself a self-transferable plasmid or transposon (Courvalin, 2006).
Antibiotic resistance : causes and risk factors, mechanisms and alternatives by Adriel R. Bonilla